Founded in 1923 by Otto Kallir, the gallery specialized in the work of the Austrian Expressionists. Kallir fled Vienna in 1938, selling his gallery to his secretary in an attempt to secure his business during the Nazi period. Kallir exported much of his stock to Paris, where he established the Galerie St. Etienne. He fled Paris within a year, placing much of his stock in storage and taking only a small portion with him to New York, where he established the Galerie St. Étienne. The works of art he left in Paris were not looted and Kallir was able to reclaim them after the war. He also took possession again of the Vienna gallery. After the war the Neue Galerie collaborated with Galerie St. Étienne, New York but was later dissolved.